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Aroma and extraction of bergamot essential oil

Analysis of bergamot essential oil by GC-MS

The extraction technology of different extraction methods of Bergamot essential oil was optimized. The optimal extraction process of the essential oil of the hand was as follows: no NaCl was added, the ratio of solid to liquid was 1:14, the distillation time was 7h, and the optimal extraction process of the essential oil of the hand was as follows: the ratio of solid to liquid was 1:15; The extraction time was 3h, the extraction temperature was 50°C, and the optimal extraction process was as follows: extraction time was 45min, solid-liquid ratio was 1:20, and supersonic power was 180W.

The components of the essential oil extracted by this method were analyzed. There were mainly 54 kinds of essential oil components obtained by steam distillation. Among them, the contents of olefines were 77.27%, acids 5.83%, alcohols 2.78%, esters 1.03%, ketones 1.04%, and limonene (45.2%), pinene (21.26%), pleulocene (2.78%) and so on. A total of 32 main components were identified, including esters 20.51%, acids 16.23%, alcohols 9.77%, olefins 7.93% and ketones 6.86%. High content of ethyl isocholate (8.85%), ursodeoxycholic acid (7.41%), limonene (5.26%) and so on. 38 main components of the essential oil extracted by ultrasonic wave method were identified, including acids 23.01%, olefins 17.25%, esters 14.94%, ketones 5.71% and alcohols 4.82%. High content of limonene (10.98%), methyl cholate (8.99%), fluprednisolone (6.25%) and so on.

The extraction method of plant essential oil has been mentioned in the previous article, pressing method, steam distillation method, organic solvent extraction method, supercritical fluid extraction method, ultrasonic assisted extraction method, etc.

In recent years, with the popularity and sales of natural plant products, natural plant extract essential oils are becoming more and more popular in the international market, and the market potential is huge.

At present, the widely used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data system combined technology is based on the analysis of the spectral fragments of terpenoids and their derivatives, and then compared with the standard spectrum, and then reference the data to confirm.

In general, plant essential oils are mainly divided into alcohols, masking, thin, esters, burned hydrocarbons, carbonyl and several groups of substances.

In addition, at present, plant essential oils are not only used to prepare flavors and fragrances, but also the antibacterial activity of plant essential oils and their components has been widely studied and tried to be applied.

Plant essential oils have been extensively studied in other industries such as product preservation.

Buddha’s hand, the scientific name, also known as Buddha’s hand, Miluo orange, five fingers equal, is a variety of fragrant plants, evergreen small trees, green branches and large leaves, four to five times a year.
Bergamot flowers, leaves and fruits can be used as medicine, is a traditional precious medicinal materials, can ease the liver qi, and stomach pain relief, long flowering period, flowers all the year round, spring opening quality is the most, among which, flowers, leaves and fruits in the oil rich aroma.
Bergamot has been cultivated in China for more than 400 years, located in Guangdong, Fujian, Sichuan and Zhejiang.

A comparative study of four different extraction methods for the volatile oil of Bergamot hand showed that the cold pressing method had a lower separation rate, while the synchronous steam extraction method and steam feed method had a higher oil yield, and the content of each component in the obtained essential oil was about the same. The synchronous steam extraction method had no obvious advantage over the steam distillation method, and the organic solvent remained in the bergamot oil products. Affect the quality of bergamot oil. The organic solvent extraction method can greatly increase the content of trace components in bergamot oil, but the oil yield is low. The oil obtained by steam distillation has high yield, stable yield and no solvent residue. The oil obtained can directly participate in the production of cosmetics and food.

Comparison of aroma components of bergamot flower, leaf and fruit. During the development of Bergamot flower, there were 15 common components in 4 stages, and the proportion of these substances in the aroma components of each stage was different, among which the content of catalpa lemon was the highest in the 4 stages. In addition, the flowers of the four periods contained some aroma substances different from other periods, such as juniper diene and ethyl iso-cholate in the flowering period of the Buddha’s hand, and methyl-tranlinoleic acid and catalpionic acid in the early flowering period. The full flowering period of linolenic acid acetic vinegar, docosahexanoate glycerol three cool, the final flowering period of allobasil thin, etc.

There are 12 common aroma components in the aroma components of Bergamot, leaf and fruit, and they differ only in content. The main component of flower and leaf aroma components is catalpa dilute, the content of which is more than 60%. In addition to the catalpa lemon, the content of the powder was also higher, reaching 32.85%. However, in the flowers and leaves, this substance only accounts for less than 10%, indicating that the aroma of bergamot flower and leaves is mainly affected by catalmonene, and the aroma of bergamot fruit is mainly affected by catalmonene and coprinene. In addition, among the 12 aroma components, the content of 3-carene in flowers, leaves and fruits is 2-20 times that of 3-carene in flowers and leaves, respectively. The proportion of oil in fruit aroma components was significantly higher than that in flowers and leaves.

According to the different extraction methods of bergamot, extract composition analysis can determine the volatile substances of bergamot essential oil, so as to meet the demand.

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