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Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory analysis of lemon essential oil

About Lemon Essential Oil

Lemon, a dicotyledonous plant, rutaceae the fruit of the wood plant, also known as lime fruit, mother fruit, lemon and so on. Lemon originated in Malaysia, adapted to planting in warm winter and cool summer, stable temperature subtropical areas, after gradually introduced in the Mediterranean and North America and other regions, China’s main planting areas for the Yangtze River south, Guangdong Qingyuan, Yunnan Ruili, Sichuan Anyue and other places. Lemon is one of the world’s well-known medicinal and edible fruits, rich in citric acid, malic acid, hesperidin, naringin, a variety of vitamins and trace elements, with the prevention of colds, anti-scurvy, prevention of hypertension, alleviate cardiovascular sclerosis and regulate the body’s immunity and other effects.

Lemon essential oil mainly contains alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters and other oxygen-containing compounds and terpene olefins, which have anticancer, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and bactericidal effects. At present, the research and application of lemon essential oil are mainly focused on aromatherapy or improving the nervous system effects and the preparation of membrane materials. Because of the different raw material source and composition of lemon essential oil, its pharmacological activity has a certain difference.

Lemon essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS technology and a variety of volatile components were detected, including terpenes, aldehydes, esters and other oxygen-containing substances, among which terpenes were the most important components of lemon essential oil, mainly limonene, terpene, γ-terpinene, laurene, etc. Among the three lemon essential oils, the content of limonene was the highest (34. 37 % ~ 50. 87%). Sweet lemon essential oil aroma is fragrant and refreshing, and it is the most unique among the three essential oils, which is closely related to its complex chemical composition. Linallinol, terpene, β-pinene and other components are both active and aroma substances of essential oils, and the mixture of various aroma substances creates the unique aroma of sweet lemon essential oil. Yellow/Green lemon Essential oil Lemon aroma is prominent and free of impurities, because of the high content of limonene and citral, and lemon aroma has a good effect on preventing nausea and vomiting and promoting gastrointestinal recovery. There are differences in the detection of different essential oils and batch ingredients, and different results are caused by different growth conditions, material selection and detection conditions.

Excessive TNF-α as a pro-inflammatory factor can increase cellular inflammatory damage and induce the production of a variety of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, the content of TNF-α in the cells treated with LPS was significantly increased compared with that in the normal group. Compared with the model group, the content of TNF-α produced by each essential oil in the experimental group was decreased to a certain extent. The compounds in essential oils are responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity, and studies have shown that limonene, linalool and α-pinene have anti-inflammatory effects.

The antibacterial effect of plant essential oil is mainly due to the presence of alcohols, aldehydes, phenols and terpenes, and different compounds have different effects on various microorganisms. Yellow/green lemon essential oil has a significant inhibitory effect on Candida albicans, and its inhibitory circle is much greater than that of the mass concentration of miconazole nitrate commercial product. Some studies have found that the aldehyde substances of plant essential oil make it have high antifungal activity. According to the results of GC-MS analysis, the content of citral in yellow/green lemon essential oil was higher than that of sweet lemon essential oil with general antibacterial effect on Candida albicans. The inhibitory zone size of yellow/green lemon essential oil on Staphylococcus aureus is similar to that measured by ceftriaxone sodium at 25 mg /mL in clinical use, and the inhibitory zone range of Escherichia coli is similar to that of 6. 25 ~12. The 5 mg /mL concentration of ceftriaxone sodium was similar, while the two kinds of sweet lemon essential oil had poor antibacterial effects and the chemical substances in the GC-MS analysis data were the most complex, which was consistent with the results of some studies that found that the oxygen-containing compounds and their derivatives in many types of plant essential oils had poor overall antibacterial activity against bacteria and fungi.

In summary, lemon essential oil mainly contains oxygen compounds and terpenes limonene in the terpenes is the most important component of lemon essential oil, which has certain anti-inflammatory effect and good antibacterial effect in vitro studies.

 

                                                                                                                                           This article is from the Journal of Food and Oils, volume 34, issue 7, 2021

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